Pediatric Celiac Disease (Sprue) Treatment & Management

Updated: Nov 07, 2019
  • Author: Stefano Guandalini, MD; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Treatment

Medical Care

Total lifelong avoidance of gluten ingestion is the cornerstone treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Wheat, rye, and barley are the grains that contain toxic peptides. They should be eliminated as completely as possible, although daily intake doses larger than 10 mg are likely needed to cause mucosal reaction. [40] GI symptoms in patients with symptomatic celiac disease who adhere to a gluten-free diet typically resolve within a few weeks; these patients experience the normalization of nutritional measures, improved growth in height and weight (with resultant normal stature), and normalization of hematological and biochemical parameters.

Furthermore, treatment with a gluten-free diet reverses the decrease in bone mineralization and the risk for fractures . Symptomatic children treated with a gluten-free also improve their sense of physical and psychological well being.

Of note, in recent years, the possibility of incomplete remission in many adult celiac patients has been emerging. [49] This seems, however, in most cases, still related to ongoing ingestion of minimal amounts of gluten, possibly through cross-contamination.

The results from one study noted no significant difference in thyroid autoimmunity presence in patients with CD between those on a gluten-free diet and those who were not. While the duration of the diet differed significantly in patients with thyroid autoimmunity than those without, it did not seem to affect weight and height gain. These results suggest that universal long-term screening programs for thyroid disease may only be necessary when thyroid diseases are suspected. [50]

For a long time, oats were considered toxic as well, and their elimination from the diet had been recommended. However, over the past decade, a growing body of scientific evidence obtained from in vitro studies as well as from clinical investigations (particularly in adults but also, more recently, in children) suggests that oats are totally safe. Because of uncontrolled harvesting and milling procedures, as well as the possibility that lines of manufacturing used for wheat-based flours are also used in the preparation of oat-based foods, cross-contamination of oats with gluten is still a concern.

Lactose is often eliminated in the initial phases of dietary treatment as well. This is because lactase deficiency is thought to accompany the flat mucosa. However, most newly diagnosed patients with celiac disease are diagnosed in the absence of overt malabsorptive symptoms; in these circumstances, clinically significant lactose malabsorption or intolerance is rarely seen. Furthermore, even in cases with obvious malabsorption, the recovery of lactase activity is typically fast; thus, a lactose-free diet must be used on a short-term basis only, even in these individuals.

The Academy of Nutrition and Deietetics (AND) (once American Dietetic Association (ADA)) publishes guidelines for the dietary treatment of celiac disease. They are a reliable source of information for a gluten-free. However, because of the dynamics of this field, the diet requires ongoing collaboration between patients, health care providers, and dietitians.

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Consultations

Because of the protean nature of celiac disease, multiple consultations may be necessary. For example, consultations with an endocrine specialist should be arranged for patients who also have Hashimoto thyroiditis or type I diabetes mellitus, and a rheumatologist must be consulted for patients who have arthritis.

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Activity

No additional restriction is necessary beyond that imposed by the patient's fatigue. However, if a completely gluten-free diet is followed, celiac disease completely regresses, and individuals have a completely normal quality of life.

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Prevention

The only way to prevent recurrences is to closely monitor the patient's diet. Because celiac disease is more common in relatives of patients, first-degree relatives should at least be serologically screened (see Causes). Concerned parents usually accept this simple procedure, which often reveals previously undetected celiac disease, even in asymptomatic individuals. This effective preventive strategy must be encouraged.

Also, prevention of complications by early diagnosis (secondary prevention) may be achieved by applying a protocol of blood screening to all patients who belong to other at-risk categories (eg, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome).

With elucidation of the role that infant feeding practices and rotavirus infections play, primary prevention of celiac disease no longer seems impossible. Primary prevention (at least in some cases) may be achieved through the expected reduction of rotavirus infections after the introduction of the vaccine and through proper breast feeding and gluten introduction in infants born to at-risk families.

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Long-Term Monitoring

After the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) has been established and a strict diet has been initiated, the first follow-up requirement is to monitor the patient's response to the diet. Depending on the severity of the clinical situation and the type of symptoms, the first outpatient appointment is typically scheduled for 4-8 weeks after the diagnosis. At this time, serologic tests for celiac disease are not needed because antibody levels still have not declined.

Further follow-up appointments are dedicated to assessing the patient's dietetic compliance and the adequacy of growth and well-being. Anti-tTG and the newer deamidated antigliadin antibodies should be periodically monitored for regression; their levels usually return to normal within 4-6 months after the beginning of a rigorous diet. However, the best indicator of dietary compliance is attainable by a careful review of the diet, and simple survey questionnaires have been developed for use in adults. [51] For patients whose initial levels of anti-tTG were particularly elevated, normalization can take up to 12-18 months. For asymptomatic patients and for those who are clinically responding well to diet, follow-up appointments are usually scheduled annually.

Celiac disease can be associated with numerous autoimmune disorders. If any are present (eg, type I diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis), follow-up care must include an adequate assessment of these conditions, which most often do not respond to the diet, and referral to other specialists is required (see Consultations).

A dietitian must be present at each of the follow-up appointments because the questions that most interest the patient's family are, by far, those concerning the diet.

In patients who had obvious malabsorption at diagnosis, assessment of the status of specific nutritional deficiencies (eg, iron deficiency, folate deficiency, zinc deficiency) is appropriate.

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