Surgery for Pediatric Anorectal Malformation (Imperforate Anus) Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 15, 2020
  • Author: Richard J Wood, MD, MBChB, MRCS(Eng), Dip PEC(SA), FCPaedSurg(SA); Chief Editor: Eugene S Kim, MD, FACS, FAAP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How are anorectal malformations (ARMs) classified?

What is the role of anatomic repair in the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What factors contribute to incontinence despite anatomic repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What causes anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the prevalence of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the Krickenbeck classification of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the prognosis of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How is the likelihood of fecal continence determined in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How does the prognosis vary among anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

Presentation

What are the initial treatment decisions in the first 48 hours after birth of a child with anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What are the treatment options for newborns with anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What are the treatment options for male newborns with anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What are the treatment options for female newborns with anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

Workup

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the role of high-pressure distal colostography in the management of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the role of MRI in the management of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

Treatment

When is surgery contraindicated for the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How common are genitourinary defects in anorectal malformations (ARMs) and how are they evaluated?

How prevalent is a tethered spinal cord in anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How does a tethered spinal cord affect the prognosis of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How is a tethered spinal cord diagnosed in anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How prevalent are sacral and spinal defects in anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How do sacral and spinal defects affect the prognosis in anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the role of colostomy in the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the role of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) in the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How is posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) performed for the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is the role of laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty in the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How is imperforate anus without fistula repaired?

How is rectal atresia and rectal stenosis repaired?

What is included in the postoperative care following the surgical repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

How is constipation treated following the surgical repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What are the possible complications of the surgical repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring following the surgical repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs)?