Pediatric Chronic Anemia Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Aug 29, 2022
  • Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Lawrence C Wolfe, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of pediatric chronic anemia, in addition to those in the next section, include the following:

  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

  • Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia

  • Red cell enzyme deficiencies, including G-6-PD deficiency, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and glutathione synthetase deficiency

  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), congenital or acquired

  • Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)

  • Nutritional iron deficiency

  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

  • Pure red cell aplasia

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Sideroblastic anemia

  • Unstable hemoglobinopathies

  • Hookworm infection

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Myelodysplastic syndrome

  • Myelofibrosis

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Thalassemia

  • Red cell membrane protein abnormalities, including HS, hereditary elliptocytosis, pyropoikilocytosis, and hereditary xerocytosis

Differential Diagnoses