Pediatric Autoimmune Neutropenia Treatment & Management

Updated: Jun 02, 2023
  • Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Lawrence C Wolfe, MD  more...
  • Print

Approach Considerations

Focus the treatment of autoimmune neutropenia on intercurrent infections. In patients with frequent infections, prophylactic antibiotics with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole may help, although the benefits are anecdotal, [9] and no randomized, controlled trials have been done. In children with recurrent infections, treatment with G-CSF (Neupogen) greatly decreases frequency of infections.

If the patient is free from significant infection, treatment is unnecessary.

An invasive procedure, such as a splenectomy, is not warranted, because virtually all patients spontaneously recover from chronic neutropenia.

Spontaneous recovery after 6-24 months is typical. If it persists beyond age 4-5 years, consider other diagnoses. It is important to follow these patients into recovery for this reason.

Go to Neutropenia for complete information on this topic.



Hematologic consultation is recommended to exclude other causes of neutropenia, in particular severe congenital neutropenia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and to obtain assistance in the interpretation of neutrophil antibody studies.

Once the diagnosis of autoimmune neutropenia is firmly established, primary care physicians can monitor patients.