Lymphadenopathy Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 03, 2020
  • Author: Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is lymphadenopathy, and how does it develop in children?

What is the function of lymph nodes?

What is the workup approach to lymphadenopathy?

What is the management approach to lymphadenopathy?

What is the pathophysiology of lymphadenopathy?

What is the prevalence of lymphadenopathy in the US?

What is global prevalence of lymphadenopathy?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with lymphadenopathy?

What are the race-related demographics in lymphadenopathy?

How does the prevalence of lymphadenopathy vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of lymphadenopathy vary by age?

Presentation

How can history help narrow the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy?

How is a physical exam performed for lymphadenopathy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lymphadenopathy?

What should be considered during a physical exam for lymphadenopathy?

What condition should be suspected upon a finding of febrile cervical lymphadenopathy during physical exam in children?

Which autoimmune disorders and hypersensitivity states cause generalized lymphadenopathy?

Which storage diseases cause generalized lymphadenopathy?

Which neoplastic and proliferative disorders cause generalized lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of submaxillary and submental lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of occipital lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of preauricular lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of mediastinal lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of axillary lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of abdominal lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of inguinal lymphadenopathy?

How is generalized lymphadenopathy defined and what are the causes?

How do infections present in lymphadenopathy?

What are the malignant etiologies of lymphadenopathy?

Which storage diseases cause lymphadenopathy?

What is the presentation of drug-related lymphadenopathy?

What are the less common etiologies of lymphadenopathy?

What is regional lymphadenopathy?

What is cervical lymphadenopathy?

What are the infectious etiologies of cervical lymphadenopathy?

What are the noninfectious etiologies of cervical lymphadenopathy, and what are the most common etiologies for cervical lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients?

What is submaxillary and submental lymphadenopathy?

What is occipital lymphadenopathy?

What is preauricular lymphadenopathy?

What is mediastinal lymphadenopathy?

What causes mediastinal lymphadenopathy and what are possible complications?

What are the infectious etiologies of mediastinal lymphadenopathy?

Which conditions may be confused with mediastinal lymphadenopathy?

What is supraclavicular lymphadenopathy?

What is axillary lymphadenopathy?

What is abdominal lymphadenopathy?

What is iliac and inguinal lymphadenopathy?

What are the infectious etiologies of generalized lymphadenopathy?

What are the etiologies of cervical lymphadenopathy?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Lymphadenopathy?

Workup

How should the lab evaluation of lymphadenopathy be directed?

Which lab studies should be considered for the evaluation of chronic lymphadenopathy?

When is hepatic and renal function and urine analysis indicated in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of serology in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of PET scanning in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

How can ultrasonography be used to diagnose metastatic and tuberculous lymph nodes in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of a shear-wave elastography (SWE) in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of lymph node biopsy in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy?

When should reevaluation be done following antibiotic treatment of suspected lymphadenitis?

What is the role of fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of excisional biopsy in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

What is the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and ultrasound-guided full-core needle biopsy (UFCNB) in the workup of lymphadenopathy?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of lymphadenopathy?

What is the indication for staging in lymphadenopathy?

Treatment

How is the treatment for lymphadenopathy determined?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of lymphadenopathy?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of lymphadenopathy?

What dietary restrictions are needed during the treatment of lymphadenopathy?

When are activity limitations indicated in the treatment of lymphadenopathy?

Medications

What medical therapy is indicated for lymphadenopathy?

Follow-up

How is outpatient care determined in patients with lymphadenopathy?

When is inpatient care indicated for lymphadenopathy?

What medications are used for treatment of lymphadenopathy?

When should transfer be considered for the treatment of lymphadenopathy?

What are possible complications of lymphadenopathy?

What is the prognosis of lymphadenopathy?

What does patient education for lymphadenopathy involve?