Pediatric Splenomegaly Follow-up

Updated: Mar 29, 2022
  • Author: Trisha Simone Natanya Tavares, MD; Chief Editor: Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK)  more...
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Further Outpatient Care

For patients who require follow-up, family education should be provided at each outpatient visit. Tailor follow-up and education to the underlying disease and the potential side effects of therapy.



The development of hypersplenism with resulting anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia may be mild or severe and depends on the underlying condition and disease course.

Splenic rupture may occur in acute splenomegaly associated with infectious mononucleosis. The incidence is 1:1000, and it usually occurs in the first 3 weeks of illness. [33] Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics, through its Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, has recommended that children with acute splenomegaly restrict their participation in sports. [34, 35] Disorders associated with chronic splenomegaly do not have the same splenic friability and risk of rupture. [35, 36]  

Splenectomy is uncommonly performed in children with splenomegaly. Nevertheless, should it be clinically indicated, the overall risk of postsplenectomy sepsis is approximately 2%, with increased incidence and mortality in young children. [59, 60]