Bacteremia Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 12, 2018
  • Author: Nicholas John Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, MA(Cantab), FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is bacteremia defined?

What is the focus of the history to evaluate bacteremia?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate bacteremia?

Which studies are performed in the workup of bacteremia?

How is the level of risk determined for children with bacteremia?

Which empiric antibiotic regimens are used in the treatment of bacteremia?

Which algorithms have been developed for the treatment of bacteremia?

What are the indications for hospitalization of infants and children with bacteremia?

What is included in the follow-up care of bacteremia?

What is bacteremia?

What is the pathophysiology of bacteremia?

What is the prevalence of bacteremia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of bacteremia?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with bacteremia?

What are the racial predilections of bacteremia?

What are the sexual predilections of bacteremia?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of bacteremia?

Presentation

What is the role of the clinical history of bacteremia in determining severity of the bacterial infection?

What is the role of duration of fever in the assessment of bacteremia?

What is the significance of a history of meningococcal infection in the assessment of bacteremia?

What are the Rochester criteria of decreased risk for occult bacteremia?

Which clinical history findings suggest an increased risk for occult bacteremia?

Which clinical history findings increase the risk of mortality from bacteremia?

What is the significance of a history of prematurity in the assessment of bacteremia?

Which clinical history findings suggest other reasons than bacteremia for increased temperature?

What is the significance of a history of gastroenteritis in the assessment of bacteremia?

What is the significance of a history of viral syndromes in the assessment of bacteremia?

What are the risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with bacteremia?

What is the significance of a family history of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in the assessment of bacteremia?

What is the initial focus of the physical exam of a febrile infant or child when bacteremia is suspected?

What is the general appearance characteristic of bacteremia?

Which vital signs findings are characteristic of bacteremia?

What is the role of temperature in the physical exam of bacteremia?

Which temperature findings are characteristic of bacteremia?

How do patients with bacteremia respond to antipyretics?

What is the significance of findings of focal infection during the assessment of bacteremia?

What is the significance of a finding of petechiae in the assessment of bacteremia?

What is the significance of a finding of acute otitis media or upper respiratory infection in the assessment of bacteremia?

Which physical findings suggest pneumonia in patients with bacteremia?

Which physical findings suggest a viral infection in the assessment of bacteremia?

What causes bacteremia?

What are risk factors for bacteremia in older infants and children?

What is the role of pneumococcus in the etiology of occult bacteremia?

Workup

What is the role of WBC count in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of absolute band count (ABC) in the workup of bacteremia?

What are low-risk band criteria for bacteremia?

What is the role of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of cytokines measurement in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of procalcitonin (PCT) measurement in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of urinalysis in the workup of bacteremia?

How is salmonella identified in the workup of bacteremia?

How is N meningitidis identified in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of CSF analysis in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of blood culture in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of venipuncture in the workup of bacteremia?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of bacteremia?

How are urine specimens obtained in the workup of bacteremia?

Treatment

What is the role of antipyretics in the treatment of bacteremia?

What are the low-risk criteria for young infants with bacteremia?

What is the negative predictive value (NPV) of low-risk criteria for serious bacterial infection and occult bacteremia?

What is the role of empiric antibiotics in the treatment of bacteremia?

What is the efficacy of empiric antibiotics in the treatment of pneumococcal bacteremia?

How is meningococcal bacteremia treated?

How is Salmonella bacteremia treated?

How is bacteremia treated in neonates?

How is bacteremia treated in infants 1 to 3 months old?

How is bacteremia treated in infants and children 3-36 months old?

What is the cost-effectiveness of bacteremia treatment?

What are treatment algorithms for the management of bacteremia?

Medications

What is the summary of medication for treatment of bacteremia?

Which medications in the drug class Antipyretic Agents are used in the treatment of Bacteremia?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic Agents are used in the treatment of Bacteremia?

Follow-up

What is included in the long-term monitoring of bacteremia?

When is inpatient care indicated for the treatment of bacteremia?

Which medications are used in the treatment of bacteremia?

When is patient transfer indicated for the treatment of bacteremia?

How is bacteremia prevented?

What are the possible complications of bacteremia?

What is the prognosis of bacteremia?