Cholera Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 02, 2018
  • Author: Sajeev Handa, MBBCh, BAO, LRCSI, LRCPI; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cholera?

How is cholera transmitted?

What is the priority in the management of cholera?

What is the historical background of cholera?

What was John Snow's role in the discovery of cholera?

Who is credited with the discovery of cholera?

What are the 7 pandemics of cholera?

What is the newest strain of cholera?

Where is cholera common?

What are characteristics of Vibrio (V) cholerae?

What is the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the pathogenesis of cholera?

How are the serotypes of the cholera pathogen classified?

How do the clinical and epidemiologic features of cholera vary among serotypes?

How does Vibrio (V) cholerae withstand gastric acidity in the digestive system?

What is the infectious dose of Vibrio (V) cholerae required to cause cholera?

Which classes of medications increase the risk of cholera infection?

What is the pathogenesis of cholera?

What causes severe diarrhea in the pathogenesis of cholera?

Why are few neutrophils present in the stool of patients with cholera?

What are unique characteristics of the O139 Bengal strain causing cholera?

What are the factors that contribute to cholera epidemics and pandemics?

How is cholera transmitted?

What type of organism is Vibrio (V) cholerae?

What are the 2 main reservoirs for cholera?

How do seasonal changes increase the risk of primary transmission of cholera?

How does secondary transmission of cholera occur?

What are the infection rates for cholera?

What is the role of malnutrition in the etiology of cholera?

How does blood type affect the incidence of cholera?

What are the infection rates of household contacts of cholera patients?

What factors decrease the likelihood of cholera recurrence?

What role do asymptomatic carriers of Vibrio (V) cholerae have in the transmission of cholera?

What is the prevalence of cholera in the US?

Where in the US are there indigenous strains of cholera?

Where in the US has cholera occurred?

What is the incidence of cholera in the US?

Which factors contribute to the lack of global reporting of cases of cholera?

What is the global incidence of cholera?

How far did the Vibrio (V) cholerae O139 cholera epidemic spread?

What were the incidence and mortality rates of the cholera epidemic in Haiti?

How does the incidence of cholera vary by age?

What is the prognosis of cholera?

What is the role of environmental control in the prevention of cholera?

Presentation

What are the initial symptoms of cholera?

What are the characteristics of most Vibrio (V) cholerae infections?

What is a hallmark symptom of cholera?

What is the stool volume during cholera?

What are characteristics of stool in cholera?

What causes vomiting in patients with cholera?

If untreated, what is the disease progression of cholera?

How do clinical signs correlate with fluid loss in cholera?

How is dehydration classified in cholera?

What are the clinical presentations of dehydration in children with cholera?

What is the role of the skin pinch in the evaluation of cholera?

What are signs of severe dehydration due to cholera?

What are symptoms of metabolic acidosis in patients with cholera?

What are the most common lethal complications of cholera?

What are the metabolic manifestations of cholera?

What is the role of hypokalemia in cholera?

How does rehydration therapy cause hypokalemia in cholera?

What are the primary signs of cholera in pediatric patients?

What is cholera sicca?

How is dehydration assessed in patients with cholera?

DDX

What are the diagnostic considerations for cholera?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cholera?

Workup

What is the priority for the treatment of cholera?

When should cholera be suspected?

When is biochemical confirmation of a cholera diagnosis necessary?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of cholera?

What is the role of Gram staining stool exam in the diagnosis of cholera?

What stool culture results are characteristic of V cholerae infection?

How can routine differential media be used for the diagnosis of cholera?

What is the role of alkaline enrichment media in the diagnosis of cholera?

What is the role of serotyping in the diagnosis of cholera?

How is biotyping used in the diagnosis of cholera?

What is the role of hematologic tests in the diagnosis of cholera?

Which serum sodium levels suggest cholera?

Which serum potassium levels suggest cholera?

What causes hyperglycemia in cholera?

What is the role of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels in the diagnosis of cholera?

What causes a reduced bicarbonate level in cholera?

Treatment

What is the first priority in the treatment of cholera?

What is the goal of the rehydration phase of cholera treatment?

What is the goal of the maintenance phase in cholera treatment?

What guidelines are available for the management of cholera?

What is the role of cholera cots in the treatment of cholera?

Why must urine be accounted for in fluid losses from cholera?

What are WHO recommendations for the treatment cholera?

What are the rehydration options for the treatment of cholera?

How are patients with cholera monitored during rehydration therapy?

How is rehydration status assessed in patients with cholera?

How is rehydration therapy administered for the treatment of cholera?

What are the risks of overhydration in the treatment of cholera?

What is oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) for the treatment of cholera?

What is a homemade equivalent of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) for the treatment of cholera?

How is the amount of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) determined for the treatment of cholera?

When should additional oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) be given in the treatment of cholera?

How frequently should a patient be assessed during treatment of cholera with oral rehydration salt solution (ORS)?

How does vomiting affect rehydration therapy for cholera?

How is urine output affected in patients with cholera?

How is cholera treated in patients with no signs of dehydration?

When should patients with cholera and no signs of dehydration return for further treatment?

How is hydration maintained in patients with cholera?

What is the role of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) in the maintenance of hydration in cholera?

What is the amount of oral rehydration salt solution (ORS) required for the treatment of cholera?

How frequently should patients with cholera be assessed during hydration maintenance?

When is IV hydration maintenance indicated in the treatment of cholera?

What is the benefit of antibiotic treatment for cholera?

When is antibiotic treatment indicated for cholera?

What are the fluid replacement requirements for patients with cholera?

What is the oral rehydration requirements during the first 4 hours of treatment of cholera?

What is the home administration oral rehydration requirements for treatment of cholera?

What is the hydration maintenance oral replacement solution (ORS) requirements for treatment of cholera?

What is antimicrobial therapy for cholera?

What are the WHO guidelines for cholera management?

What are the dietary restrictions for patients with cholera?

What is the current response to cholera outbreaks?

What is the benefits of rapid identification of cholera cases?

Which government agencies should be involved in a coordinated approach to the control of a cholera outbreak?

What are the WHO recommendations for the prevention of cholera?

What factors can mitigate outbreaks and-fatality rates of cholera?

What are the limitations of parenteral vaccines against cholera?

When are travelers required to have cholera vaccination?

What vaccines against cholera are available?

Where is cholera vaccine available?

What are the types of cholera vaccines?

What is the efficacy of cholera vaccination?

What are the types of cholera vaccines?

What are the cholera vaccine recommendations from the CDC?

What is the efficacy of vaccines against cholera?

What is the efficacy of the Shanchol cholera vaccines?

What is the efficacy of a single-dose cholera vaccine?

Medications

What is the role of antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of cholera?

How is the choice of antibiotics for cholera determined?

When should antimicrobial therapy be initiated for the treatment of cholera?

What is the role of furazolidone in the treatment of cholera?

Who should receive a cholera vaccine?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Cholera?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Cholera?