Croup Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 09, 2019
  • Author: Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is croup?

What are the signs and symptoms of croup?

What respiratory symptoms suggest croup?

What are the characteristics of stridor in croup?

What do the physical findings of stridor indicate in patients with croup?

How should young infants who present with stridor in croup be evaluated?

Where is patient education information available for croup?

What is the etiology of croup?

How is croup transmitted?

Which physical findings suggest croup?

What is the disease course of severe croup?

What is spasmodic croup (laryngismus stridulus)?

What is the most common cause of croup?

Does the etiologic agent for croup vary among age groups?

What are the infectious causes of croup-like illnesses?

Is influenza A a risk factor for severe croup?

What is the epidemiology of croup?

Is croup more common in males or females?

What is the prognosis of croup?

Does hospitalization for croup increase the risk for asthma?

How common are complications in children with croup?

What is bacterial tracheitis and how is it managed in children with croup?

What are the possible complications of croup?

What is the incidence of croup among different age groups?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of croup?

What is the typical presentation of spasmodic croup (recurrent croup)?

Does gastroesophageal reflux (GER) increase the risk of recurrent croup symptoms?

Which clinical findings suggest croup?

What is the clinical spectrum of respiratory symptoms of croup?

What is the Westley score for assessing severity of croup?

How is croup severity classified with the Westley rating system?

What is the Alberta Clinical Practice Guideline scale for croup severity?

Do the Westley and Alberta clinical practice guidelines include algorithms for medical intervention for croup?

DDX

Which disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of croup?

What are the differential diagnoses for Croup?

Workup

How is croup diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of croup?

What is the role of pulse oximetry readings and arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements in the management of croup?

When is an evaluation of hydration status or IV fluid support indicated for children with croup?

Which procedures may be indicated in the diagnosis of croup, and should they be performed by a specialist?

What are the risk factors for recurrent croup?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of croup?

Treatment

When is urgent care or emergency department (ED) treatment of croup indicated?

Can mild croup symptoms be successfully treated at home?

How should a medical exam of a child with croup and significant respiratory distress be conducted?

What monitoring is needed for severe croup?

Which treatments for croup should be administered in urgent care clinics or emergency departments (ED)?

How should severe respiratory distress or compromise from croup be treated?

Is cool mist administration an effective treatment for croup?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of croup?

Is dexamethasone effective in reducing the overall severity of croup?

How is dexamethasone administered in the treatment of croup?

What is the role of epinephrine in the treatment for croup?

How long should patients who receive nebulized racemic epinephrine for croup be observed?

Is heliox effective in the treatment of croup?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of croup?

Which medications are typically reserved for croup in patients with moderate to severe respiratory distress?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Croup?

Which medications in the drug class Nebulized Vasoconstrictors are used in the treatment of Croup?