Pediatric HIV Infection Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 25, 2019
  • Author: Delia M Rivera, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and how is HIV transmitted?

What are the benefits of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) early in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric HIV infection observed in the physical exam?

What are the recommendations for diagnosing pediatric HIV infection?

How is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to diagnose HIV infection in older children and adults?

What is the role of rapid HIV tests in the workup of HIV?

What are the classes of antiretroviral agents used in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

What is the recommended antiretroviral regimen for the initial treatment of infants, children, and adolescents with HIV infection?

When should infants and children with HIV infection begin treatment?

Which medications other than antiretroviral drugs (ARDs) are used in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

How common is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children?

What is the role of prenatal HIV testing in the diagnosis of HIV infection?

How is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmitted in adolescents?

Which demographic group has an increasing incidence of HIV infection?

How does HIV infection progress in pediatric patients?

What are the WHO estimates on the incidence and prevalence of pediatric HIV infection, and how are primary caregivers affected?

What are the strains of HIV, and which is most commonly observed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?

What is the most common route of transmission of pediatric HIV infection?

How is pediatric HIV infection contracted other than through vertical transmission?

What is the presentation of pediatric HIV?

How is HIV infection transmitted?

When do most vertical HIV infections occur?

What is the virology of HIV?

How does HIV attach to a host cell?

In which populations has a genetic defense against HIV infection been observed, and how common is it?

What is the mechanism of treatment resistance in HIV infection?

What happens when the HIV virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host?

What causes HIV viremia, and how long does it take for viral loads to diminish in pediatric HIV infection?

How does the pathophysiology differ between vertically transmitted HIV infection and HIV acquired via blood transfusion?

When do antibodies to gp120 develop in HIV infection and what is the result?

What causes the immunocompromised state and the proliferation of opportunistic infections and malignancies in pediatric HIV infection?

What do CD95+ T-cell levels indicate in HIV infection?

How do hematopoietic disturbances occur in HIV infection?

How is cytokine dysregulation characterized in HIV infection, and what is the result?

What are the effects of hematopoietic disruption in HIV infection?

How common is thrombocytopenia in HIV infection and which patients are at highest risk?

How common is anemia in HIV infection?

What is the etiology of anemia in HIV infection?

How common is neutropenia in HIV infection and what is its etiology?

What are the neurologic effects of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the mechanisms of viral resistance development in the HIV infection?

Why does human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance develop?

What is the etiology of pediatric HIV infection?

How does the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes differ by geographic region?

How is pediatric HIV infection most commonly acquired, and are girls or boys most likely to be affected?

What is the HIV seroprevalence rate in pregnant women in the US?

Why does perinatal HIV transmission occur?

What are the CDC statistics on pediatric HIV infections in the US?

What are the CDC statistics on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the US?

Why is the incidence of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decreasing?

How common is HIV disease-related death in children younger than 15 years in the US?

What are the CDC statistics on the race- and sex-related demographics on HIV infection in the US in adolescents and young adults aged 13-24 years?

What is the worldwide prevalence of HIV infection?

Which type of HIV virus most commonly causes HIV infection worldwide?

What is the HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant women worldwide?

What is the prevalence of HIV infection worldwide?

What is the HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant women in Asia, and why might the statistics be misleading?

How do perinatal HIV transmission rates compare in Europe and Africa?

Which HIV type is associated with different geographic regions around the world?

What are the statistics on pediatric HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa?

Why is it difficult to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in Asia and Europe, and what factors contribute to increased rates in young females and infants?

What is the worldwide death rate of pediatric HIV in children younger than 15 years?

What are the HIV disease-related infant death rates in sub-Saharan Africa?

Which comorbidities are associated with high rates of mortality in hospitalized, HIV-infected/exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa?

What are the race-related demographics of pediatric HIV infection in the US?

What are the sex-related demographics of pediatric HIV infection?

When is pediatric HIV infection usually identified in infants and children?

What are the age-related demographics of HIV infection?

What is the importance of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV infection?

Which factors influence the outcome of pediatric HIV disease?

Which factors can influence the progression of pediatric HIV infection?

How do hematologic disturbances affect the prognosis of pediatric HIV infection?

Which factors are associated with rapidly progressive HIV disease in infants?

What is the role of viral load in the progression of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the baseline CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentages and associated intermediate-term risk of death in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the baseline HIV RNA copy number (copies/mL) and associated intermediate-term risk of death in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the prognosis of vertically acquired HIV infection?

What is the prognosis of HIV-infected children in resource-poor nations?

What are the challenges of educating parents about the importance of compliance with medications and health care visits in pediatric HIV infection?

What patient education information is available on pediatric HIV infection?

Presentation

How is pediatric HIV infection diagnosed?

When do children with vertically transmitted HIV infection become symptomatic?

Which conditions are associated with a high index of suspicion for pediatric HIV infection?

What is the common presentation of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the signs of moderate-to-severe cellular immune deficiency associated with HIV infection?

Which growth factors are associated with pediatric HIV infection?

Which developmental factors are associated with pediatric HIV infection?

What are common early signs of pediatric HIV infection?

What is the most common oral disease associated with pediatric HIV infection and how does it manifest?

What are the symptoms of candidal esophagitis in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the characteristics of candidal periodontal disease in pediatric HIV infection?

Which Candida species cause oral infection in pediatric HIV infection?

How does candidiasis manifest in pediatric HIV infection?

Which oral conditions besides candidiasis are associated with pediatric HIV infection?

How common are dental caries in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the common oral manifestations of pediatric HIV infection?

How does dermatophytosis manifest in pediatric HIV infection?

Which deep fungal infections are seen in pediatric HIV infection, and how common are they?

How does herpetic infection manifest in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the manifestation of skin lesions in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the relationship between varicella-zoster infection and the CD4+ count in pediatric HIV infection?

How is herpes zoster associated with pediatric HIV infection?

What is the manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

How does molluscum contagiosum manifest in pediatric HIV infection and AIDS?

Why are recurrent bacterial infections seen in pediatric HIV infection?

How do Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections manifest in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the presentation of bacillary angiomatosis in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the presentation of mycobacterial infections in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the presentation of M haemophilum infection in pediatric HIV infection and AIDS?

What is the role of Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P carinii) pneumonia (PCP) in AIDS and how does it manifest in pediatric HIV infection and AIDS?

What is the presentation of scabies in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the manifestation of measles infections in children where pediatric HIV infection is endemic?

What is the manifestation of noma (cancrum oris) in the setting of pediatric HIV infection?

What is the manifestation of seborrheic dermatitis in the setting of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the effects of vitamin deficiencies in pediatric HIV infection?

Which metabolic abnormalities are associated with pediatric HIV infection?

Which skin conditions have been reported in pediatric HIV infection?

How should unusual skin lesions be evaluated in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the types of neoplasia associated with pediatric HIV infection?

What is the prevalence of HIV-associated malignancies in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the physical findings of pediatric HIV infection?

How often should anthropometric measurements be obtained in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the characteristics of encephalopathy in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the presentation of fat redistribution syndrome in pediatric HIV infection?

What diagnostic criteria and tools are used to monitor the anthropometric findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat (HEENT) findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the cardiac findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the pulmonary findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the abdominal findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the lymphatic findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the neurologic findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the skin/cutaneous findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the extremity findings in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the most common opportunistic infection in vertically transmitted HIV infection?

What is the presentation of Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P carinii) pneumonia (PCP) in pediatric HIV infection?

What systemic complications are associated with pediatric HIV infection?

How common is chronic diarrhea in pediatric HIV infection, and which diagnostic tests are useful in the workup?

What is the cause of chronic diarrhea in pediatric HIV infection and how is it treated?

How does pancreatitis develop in pediatric HIV infection?

Which signs and symptoms are associated with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

How is wasting syndrome characterized in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the prevalence of HIV nephropathy in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the presentation of pediatric HIV nephropathy?

What treatments are available for pediatric HIV nephropathy?

Can non-HIV nephropathy develop in pediatric HIV infection?

DDX

What is the presentation of pediatric HIV infection/AIDS in young patients without a history of immunodeficiency or severe illness?

How can a diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection be missed in a neonate?

What is the role of nonopportunistic infections in the differential diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the iatrogenic complications of the treatment of nonopportunistic infections in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the common recurrent infections in patients with pediatric HIV infection and how can they be treated?

Which factors increase the risk for bacterial infection in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric HIV Infection?

Workup

What are the CDC recommendations for prenatal HIV testing?

What are the ACOG guidelines on HIV testing during pregnancy?

How is pediatric HIV infection diagnosed?

What are the recommendations for diagnosing pediatric HIV infection in infants?

How is a diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection excluded?

How is immune status assessed in pediatric HIV infection?

How are patients with pediatric HIV infection monitored for opportunistic infections?

How often are HIV RNA levels assessed in pediatric HIV infection?

Which screening tests are performed in the infants of HIV positive mothers?

Which lab values are associated with fatality in pediatric HIV infection?

Which imaging studies and procedures are performed for baseline determinations in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the CDC recommendations for HIV testing?

What are the AAP recommendations for HIV testing in adolescents?

Which tests are used in the initial diagnosis of HIV infection?

How is HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in the diagnosis of HIV?

How are viral cultures used in the detection of HIV?

Which tests are used to diagnose HIV infection in older children and adults?

What is the role of rapid HIV tests in the workup of HIV infection?

Which rapid HIV screening tests are approved by the FDA for use in the US?

How are HIV RNA assays used in the diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection?

How is the APTIMA assay used in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

How is the viral load quantified in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

What is the sensitivity of viral load tests used in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the expected patterns of viral loads in vertically acquired HIV infection in infants?

What is the effect of viral resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pediatric HIV infection?

Which resistance assays can be performed in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

When is resistance testing recommended in pediatric HIV infection?

How accurate are the genotype and phenotype resistance assays in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

What causes viral rebound in pediatric HIV infection and how can it be addressed?

What is the role of CD4+ lymphocyte count in monitoring disease progression in pediatric HIV infection?

How common is consumptive thrombocytopenia in pediatric HIV infection?

How common is anemia in pediatric HIV infection?

What causes a high mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in pediatric HIV infection?

What may anemia portend in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the causes of pancytopenia in pediatric HIV infection?

How common is neutropenia in pediatric HIV infection?

How is folate deficiency characterized in blood smears in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

Why are serum electrolytes monitored on a regular basis in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

How are other lab tests used in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

How often should quantitative immunoglobulin levels be tested in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of renal ultrasonography in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

How is HIV nephropathy characterized in renal CT scans used in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

What is demonstrated on renal scintigraphy in the workup of HIV nephropathy in pediatric HIV infection?

When is biopsy indicated in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?

How is lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) characterized on chest radiography in pediatric HIV infection/AIDS?

What is the progression of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) in pediatric HIV infection/AIDS and how is it treated?

What are clinical categories of pediatric HIV infection?

What is clinical category N in pediatric HIV infection?

What is clinical category A in pediatric HIV infection?

Which conditions are included in clinical category B in pediatric HIV infection?

Which conditions are included in clinical category C in pediatric HIV infection?

Can a child with pediatric HIV infection be reassigned to a lesser class once an advanced class is assigned?

Treatment

What is the mainstay of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment?

How effective is antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the treatment goals in pediatric HIV infection?

Which factors are important to consider in pediatric HIV infection treatment decisions about when to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART)?

Which opportunistic infections must be anticipated and treated in pediatric HIV infection?

Which topics are included in the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in pediatric HIV Infection?

How is wasting characterized in pediatric HIV infection?

What causes abnormalities in psychological and neurologic development in pediatric HIV infection?

Why might parents of HIV-infected children miss regular clinic appointments?

How important is psychosocial support in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in pediatric HIV Infection?

What are the classes of antiretroviral drugs used in pediatric HIV infection?

How do reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, NNRTIs) work in pediatric HIV infection?

Which patients with vertically acquired HIV infection should receive antiretroviral therapy (ART)?

How effective is early antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in children younger than 12 months (1 year)?

Which antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are effective in achieving viral suppression in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the age-related CD4 thresholds for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pediatric HIV infection?

When is antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pediatric HIV infection indicated?

How are antiretroviral therapy (ART) dosing regimens determined for adolescents with HIV infection?

What is the recommended initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen in infants, children, and adolescents with pediatric HIV infection?

What are the preferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for children younger than 3 years with pediatric HIV infection?

How effective is lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy in children younger than 6 years with HIV-1 infection?

What is the role of dolutegravir in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

When is raltegravir indicated in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

Which complete antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are available for HIV-1 infection in adults and children aged 12 years or older?

Which agents are included in drug combinations for initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pediatric HIV infection?

What are preferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) combination regimens and alternative regimens for pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of monitoring antiretroviral therapy (ART) progress pediatric HIV infection?

What is the main goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pediatric HIV infection?

How is treatment failure defined in pediatric HIV infection?

What constitutes virologic treatment failure in pediatric HIV infection?

What is viral rebound in treatment failure for pediatric HIV infection?

What constitutes immunologic treatment failure in pediatric HIV infection?

What constitutes immunologic decline in pediatric HIV infection?

What constitutes clinical failure in pediatric HIV infection?

Is breastfeeding by women with HIV infection recommended?

How is the risk of postnatal HIV transmission minimized?

Is prophylaxis during breastfeeding associated with antiretroviral drug (ARD) resistance in pediatric HIV infection?

How are adverse effects of drug interactions minimized in pediatric HIV infection?

How are drug interactions classified in pediatric HIV infection?

Which antiretroviral drugs (ARDs) may affect or be affected by absorption kinetics in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the effect of antiretroviral drug (ARD) pharmacokinetic interactions in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in drug metabolism in pediatric HIV infection?

How can drug interactions among antiretroviral agents be beneficial in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

How is treatment initiated in neonates at risk of vertically acquired pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the relationship between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in pediatric HIV infection?

What may immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) unmask in pediatric HIV infection?

What are common sources of some of the opportunistic pathogens associated with pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection and which drugs are used?

What is the role of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of prophylaxis of viral infections in pediatric HIV infection?

How are fungal infections in pediatric HIV infection prevented and treated?

What are the symptoms and management of Cryptosporidium infections in pediatric HIV infection?

How is cryptococcal meningitis diagnosed and treated in pediatric HIV infection?

How can primary pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease occur in pediatric HIV infection and what are common presenting symptoms?

What is the workup of suspected mycobacterial infection in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the treatment for mycobacterial infection in pediatric HIV infection?

How common is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infection?

Is efavirenz effective in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection in children who are also being treated for tuberculosis (TB)?

How common is disseminated M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the signs and symptoms of disseminated M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

Which GI symptoms are common in disseminated M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

Which tests are indicated in the workup of M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the treatment for M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

Which drugs are used first in the treatment of M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection?

How often are blood cultures obtained for M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection in pediatric HIV infection and how long does treatment last?

When is M avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection prophylaxis started in pediatric HIV infection?

How is toxoplasmosis acquired in pediatric HIV infection and which tests are indicated when it is suspected?

How are children with pediatric HIV infection screened for opportunistic infections?

What is the treatment approach to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in neonates with pediatric HIV infection?

When are toxoplasmosis, syphilis, rubella, CMV, and herpes simplex (TORCH syndrome) screenings indicated in pediatric HIV infection?

When is immunologic function assessment indicated in pediatric HIV infection and which tests are included?

How common are thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia in pediatric HIV infection?

How common is immune-mediated platelet destruction in pediatric HIV infection?

Which regimens are used to increase platelet count in thrombocytopenia in pediatric HIV infection?

Which regimens are used to increase platelet count in thrombocytopenia in Rh-positive patients with pediatric HIV infection?

How can long-lasting responses be achieved for thrombocytopenia in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the prevalence of iatrogenic anemia in pediatric HIV infection and which tests are included in the workup?

When hemolytic anemia be suspected in pediatric HIV infection?

What causes hemophagocytic syndrome in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the effects of a low reticulocyte count, folic acid deficiency, or a vitamin B-12 deficiency in anemia and why are patients with pediatric HIV at risk for these deficiencies?

Which serum levels must be measured before treatment is initiated for vitamin B-12 deficiency in pediatric HIV infection?

What does a low or normal indirect bilirubin value suggest in pediatric HIV infection?

What does a high, low, or normal MCV indicate in anemia in pediatric HIV infection?

What causes neutropenia in pediatric HIV infection other than anemia?

Which lab tests may help clarify the differential diagnosis of anemia in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the etiology of anemia in pediatric HIV infection and how is it diagnosed?

When should erythropoietin be used in the management of anemia in pediatric HIV infection and what is the recommended regimen?

How common is neutropenia in pediatric HIV infection, and which myelosuppressive drugs can induce neutropenia?

What causes myelosuppression in pediatric HIV infection other than myelosuppressive drugs?

What is used to treat neutropenia in pediatric HIV infection and what is the recommended regimen?

When is inpatient care indicated in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of dietary management in pediatric HIV infection?

Which foods should be included and avoided in the diets of children with pediatric HIV infection?

Which types of feeding tubes are used to support the nutritional and fluid status of patients with pediatric HIV infection?

What are the consequences of noncompliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in pediatric HIV infection?

Why is medication compliance difficult in pediatric HIV infection?

How can medication compliance be monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

What is the role of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in medication noncompliance in pediatric HIV infection?

How can partial compliance lead to drug resistance in pediatric HIV infection?

How can medications be made more palatable in pediatric HIV infection?

What are the options for managing medication compliance in children with pediatric HIV infection who are noncompliant?

How is the risk of vertical transmission reduced in pediatric HIV infection?

During which 3 periods can vertical transmission occur in pediatric HIV infection?

What level of viral load is necessary for HIV particles to exist in the cervicovaginal secretions of women?

Which factors may reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HIV from a mother to her infant?

Which risk of vertical transmission of HIV is increased with elective cesarean delivery and when might vaginal delivery reduce that risk?

What is the incidence of postnatal vertical transmission of pediatric HIV infection?

Should women with HIV in developing countries breastfeed?

What is the CDC-approved regimen to reduce vertical transmission of pediatric HIV infection?

What are the adverse effects of antepartum treatment to reduce vertical transmission of HIV infection?

Does antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to an uninfected sexual partner?

What are the CDC recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV infection?

Is there an HIV vaccine for heterosexuals at risk for HIV-1 transmission and how effective is it?

Which childhood immunizations should be administered to children with pediatric HIV infection?

Which children with pediatric HIV infection should receive a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination?

Which children with pediatric HIV infection should receive a pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent (PCV 7) vaccination?

When is pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV 23) recommended in children with pediatric HIV infection?

How often should children with pediatric HIV infection receive an influenza vaccination?

Which children with pediatric HIV infection should receive a varicella vaccination and which vaccine should be used?

Can children with pediatric HIV infection receive a vaccination with a combination measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccine?

When should children with pediatric HIV infection receive a hepatitis A vaccination?

Should children with pediatric HIV infection receive a rotavirus vaccination?

When should children with pediatric HIV infection receive a tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccination?

When should children with pediatric HIV infection receive a meningococcal conjugate vaccine?

What is the role of a multidisciplinary treatment approach in pediatric HIV infection?

How often should children with pediatric HIV infection see an ophthalmologist?

When should children with pediatric HIV infection obtain dental exams and audiologic evaluations?

When are surgical consultations indicated in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

Which specialists may need to be consulted for treatment of pediatric HIV infection?

How is disease progression monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How is growth monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How are dietary habits monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How is developmental assessment and therapy monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How is social support monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How are CD4+ levels or percentages monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How are lab values monitored in pediatric HIV infection?

How are children who are HIV positive protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses?

Which test should be obtained in pediatric HIV infection with signs of neurologic disease?

Medications

When are antiretroviral drugs (ARDs) used for the treatment of pediatric HIV infection and how effective are they?

What are the 6 classes of antiretroviral drugs (ARDs) for pediatric HIV infection?

What is the initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen in pediatric HIV infection?

Which medications in the drug class HIV, ART Combos are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Complete Regimen Combinations are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Chemokine Receptor Antagonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Fusion Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Integrase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Protease Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?

Which medications in the drug class Nucleoside or Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric HIV Infection?