Pediatric Osteomyelitis Medication

Updated: May 02, 2016
  • Author: Sabah Kalyoussef, DO; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Medication

Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Nafcillin (Nafcil, Nallpen, Unipen)

Interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis during active multiplication, causing cell wall death and resultant bactericidal activity against susceptible bacteria.

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by its action at the bacterial ribosome. The antibiotic binds preferentially to the 50S ribosomal subunit and affects the process of peptide chain initiation.

Cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol)

First-generation semisynthetic cephalosporin that arrests bacterial cell wall synthesis, inhibiting bacterial growth. Primarily active against skin flora, including S aureus. Typically used alone for skin and skin-structure coverage.

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Inhibits cell wall synthesis. It is accomplished by binding to carboxyl units on peptide subunits containing free D-alanyl-D-alanine.

Cefotaxime (Claforan)

Third-generation cephalosporin with gram-negative spectrum. Lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum, gram-negative activity; lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms; higher efficacy against resistant organisms. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth.

Cefuroxime (Kefurox, Zinacef)

Second-generation cephalosporin maintains gram-positive activity that first-generation cephalosporins have. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth

Ceftazidime (Ceptaz, Fortaz, Tazicef, Tazidime)

Third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum, gram-negative activity; lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms; higher efficacy against resistant organisms. Binds to PBPs, inhibiting bacterial cell wall growth.

Tobramycin (Nebcin)

Inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to bacterial 30S and 50S ribosomes.

Gentamicin (Garamycin)

Inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to bacterial 30S and 50S ribosomes.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra)

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid.

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