Pediatric Chickenpox Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 30, 2018
  • Author: Kirsten A Bechtel, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pediatric chickenpox?

How has the varicella vaccine affected the incidence of pediatric chickenpox?

How severe is pediatric chickenpox?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric chickenpox?

Who is at increased risk for severe chickenpox?

What is the causative organism of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the pathophysiology of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the incubation period of pediatric chickenpox?

How is long-lasting immunity induced in pediatric chickenpox?

How does transmission of pediatric chickenpox occur?

What are the risk factors for severe chickenpox in neonates?

What are the risk factors for severe chickenpox in adolescents and adults?

What was the prevalence of pediatric chickenpox prior to widespread vaccination?

What is the incidence of pediatric chickenpox in the US?

What is the annual death rate of pediatric chickenpox in the US?

What are the transmission rates for pediatric chickenpox?

What is the global annual incidence of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prevalence of pediatric chickenpox in Japan?

How does the incidence of pediatric chickenpox vary between temperate and tropical climates?

Which unvaccinated age groups have the highest incidence of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the age distribution of pediatric chickenpox in tropical climates?

What is the race or sex predilection of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prognosis of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the possible complications of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prognosis of chickenpox in neonates?

What information about chickenpox should families receive?

What groups should children with pediatric chickenpox avoid?

When should parents take children with chickenpox to the hospital?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric chickenpox?

How is pediatric chickenpox presented in children with eczema or dermatitis?

What should be the focus of the history for suspected pediatric chickenpox?

How is pediatric chickenpox presented in immunocompromised children?

Which children should be considered immunocompromised in regards to exposure to pediatric chickenpox?

What is the significance of a prior history of pediatric chickenpox?

Which physical findings are typical of pediatric chickenpox?

How is pediatric chickenpox diagnosed?

Where do skin lesions appear in pediatric chickenpox?

How are skin lesions characterized in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the hallmark of pediatric chickenpox?

How is fever characterized in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the most serious complication of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the indications of secondary bacterial infections in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the most common secondary infectious organism in pediatric chickenpox?

What does staphylococci cause in patients with pediatric chickenpox?

What is the most common neurological complication of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prognosis of ataxia in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prognosis of encephalitis in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the prognosis of Reye syndrome in pediatric chickenpox?

What are neurological complications of pediatric chickenpox?

What is herpes zoster?

What are the manifestations of herpes zoster?

What is the prevalence of otitis media in pediatric chickenpox?

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis in pediatric chickenpox?

Which patient groups are at risk for retinitis and optic neuritis in pediatric chickenpox?

What are less common complications of pediatric chickenpox?

Which factor affects the outcomes of in utero varicella infections?

What are the guidelines for treating chickenpox during pregnancy?

What is the prevalence of congenital varicella syndrome?

When does infantile zoster usually manifest?

Which factors affect the severity of neonatal varicella?

How is neonatal varicella acquired?

What is prognosis of neonatal varicella in full-term infants?

DDX

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Chickenpox?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

Which white blood cell count results are characteristic of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the significance of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the evaluation of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of a Tzanck smear in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of immunohistochemical staining of skin lesion scrapings in the evaluation of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of serology in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the most sensitive serologic studies used in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

Which serologic tests are used in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of bacterial culture of lesions in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of pediatric chickenpox?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for pediatric chickenpox?

When is patient isolation indicated in the treatment of pediatric chickenpox?

How is pruritus managed in pediatric chickenpox?

What is included in supportive therapy for pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of acetaminophen in the treatment of pediatric chickenpox?

When is antiviral therapy indicated for pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of varicella zoster immune globulin (VariZIG by Cangene) in the prevention of pediatric chickenpox?

How is varicella zoster immune globulin (VariZIG) administered in the prevention of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the role of IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the prevention of pediatric chickenpox?

How is severe neonatal varicella treated?

How is mild neonatal varicella treated?

How are secondary bacterial infections treated in pediatric chickenpox?

What is the varicella vaccine against pediatric chickenpox?

Who should be receive the varicella vaccine against pediatric chickenpox?

How many doses of the varicella vaccine are recommended for the prevention of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the possible adverse effects of the second-dose varicella vaccine?

What is the manifestation of breakthrough disease following varicella vaccination?

Which patients are at highest risk for breakthrough disease?

What are the protocols for administering the varicella vaccine to children with leukemia?

How are pediatric chickenpox outbreaks controlled?

What are the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for use of a combined MMR and varicella vaccine (Varivax)?

What are the possible adverse effects of combined MMR and varicella vaccine (Varivax)?

What is the efficacy of the first dose of the varicella vaccine against pediatric chickenpox?

When is ICU admission indicated for the treatment of pediatric chickenpox?

What is the inpatient care neonatal varicella?

When is transfer to a tertiary care facility for treatment of pediatric chickenpox indicated?

Which dietary modifications are beneficial in the treatment of pediatric chickenpox?

What are the recommended activity restrictions for patients with pediatric chickenpox?

When should an infectious disease specialist be consulted for the management of pediatric chickenpox?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of pediatric chickenpox?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Pediatric Chickenpox?

Which medications in the drug class Immune Globulins are used in the treatment of Pediatric Chickenpox?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines are used in the treatment of Pediatric Chickenpox?

Which medications in the drug class Antipyretics are used in the treatment of Pediatric Chickenpox?

Which medications in the drug class Antivirals are used in the treatment of Pediatric Chickenpox?