Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 20, 2017
  • Author: Ashraf H Hamdan, MD, MBBCh, MSc, MRCP, FAAP; Chief Editor: Santina A Zanelli, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the signs and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

How is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) diagnosed?

How is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) treated?

What is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the postnatal and prenatal causes of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the prevalence of drug abuse during leading to neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Which opiates and narcotics are associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Which non-opiate drugs are associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the pathophysiology of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of opiates in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of methadone in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of buprenorphine in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of cocaine and amphetamines in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of methylxanthine in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of marijuana in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of antidepressant medications in the pathogenesis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What causes neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the US?

What is the global incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the racial and age predilections of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the prognosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the morbidity rates for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the complications of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Presentation

What is the focus of clinical history in the evaluation of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What should be included in the physical exam of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the CNS signs and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the respiratory signs and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are GI signs and symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are alcohol-related symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are lysergic acid (LSD)-related symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are nicotine- related symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are caffeine- related symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the significance of the timing of onset of the symptoms and gestational age in the evaluation of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the scoring systems for assessing the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the Finnegan scale in the assessment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

DDX

What is the role of state laws in screening for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the medicolegal implications of screening an infant for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?

Workup

When is screening for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) indicated in newborns?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of urine toxicology assays in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of meconium analysis in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of umbilical cord testing in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of blood tests in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of hair analysis in the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing in the evaluation of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Treatment

What is the duration of inpatient treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of breastfeeding in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is included in the initial assessment and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of drug treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the role of weaning in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What are the benefits of treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) outside the NICU?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

How should infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) be feed and monitored?

What activities are helpful during the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

How is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) prevented?

What are the discharge criteria for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is including in long-term monitoring of parents and infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the optimal treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

What is the efficacy of drug treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2 Agonists, Central-Acting are used in the treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Opiates are used in the treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antiepileptic agents are used in the treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?