Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 05, 2018
  • Author: Rajendra Bhimma, MBChB, MD, PhD, DCH (SA), FCP(Paeds)(SA), MMed(Natal); Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What causes acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of M and T proteins in the etiology of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the focus of treatment for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How are edema and hypertension managed in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is hyperkalemia managed in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the pathophysiology of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of the immune complex in the pathophysiology of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which major antigens are potential causes of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of nephritis strain–associated protein (NSAP) in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of SPEP in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is a proposed inflammatory mechanism for the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of C3 activation in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of C3bBb convertase in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of serum IgG in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of putative nephritogenic antigens in the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which nonimmune complex-mediated mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which patients are most likely to develop acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the incidence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How does the incidence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) vary by age?

How does the incidence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the prognosis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the prognosis of epidemic acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the resolution of edema in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the resolution of urinary abnormalities in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the resolution of gross hematuria in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the long-term prognosis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the likelihood of recurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the most common acute complication of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What causes anemia in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are potential complications of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is included in patient education about acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Presentation

How long after streptococcal infection does acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) develop?

Which factors may cause a delay in the diagnosis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

When should acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) be considered in the absence of a preceding streptococcal infection?

What is the severity of symptoms of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the asymptomatic presentation of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the presentation of severe acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which symptoms of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis?

What is the latent period of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the median age of presentation of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are the common symptoms of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) resulting in patients seeking medical attention?

What are the prevalence of edema in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the incidence of gross hematuria in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the incidence of proteinuria in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the incidence of hypertension in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the incidence of hypertensive encephalopathy in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are the symptoms of circulatory congestion in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which symptoms suggest an alternative diagnosis to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are physical findings characteristic of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

DDX

What are diagnostic considerations for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which bacterial and viral infections should be considered as alternative etiologies for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) differentiated from immunoglobulin A (IgA)–associated glomerulonephritis?

How is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) differentiated from mesangiocapillary or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)?

How is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) differentiated from crescentic glomerulonephritis?

Which types of glomerulonephritis should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis?

Workup

What is the role of urinalysis in the diagnosis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of the streptozyme test in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of complement testing in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of kidney biopsy in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which kidney biopsy findings suggest acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of hematologic and blood chemistry studies in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of urine studies in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which tests are performed for evidence of streptococcal infection in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of hemolytic complement measurement in the workup of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How are hemolytic complement levels used in the differential diagnoses of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which C4 and C5 levels are characteristic of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of renal biopsy in the diagnosis of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What are the histologic features of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) observed by light microscopy?

What are histologic features of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) observed by electron microscopy?

Treatment

What is the focus of the treatment of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which dietary and activity modifications are beneficial in the treatment of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

When are specialist consultations indicated for the treatment of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is included in long-term monitoring of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the schedule for follow-up monitoring of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) prevented?

When is inpatient care indicated for acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is severe hypertension managed in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is mild-to-moderate hypertension managed in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How are anuria or oliguria managed in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

What is the role of penicillin in the management of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

How is streptococcal pharyngitis diagnosed?

When should patients with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) be treated for active streptococcal infection?

What is the role of steroid therapy in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis?

Which medications in the drug class Antihypertensives are used in the treatment of Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis?