Pediatric Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 12, 2018
  • Author: Robert S Gillespie, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the subtypes of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the distinction between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the pathophysiology of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the pathophysiology of pneumococcal-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome?

What is the prevalence of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the mortality rates of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the racial predilections of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the sexual predilections of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of childhood Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What causes childhood Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS)?

What are the infectious causes of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What causes of atypical HUS (aHUS)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?

Workup

What is the role of hematology testing in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of serum chemistry panels in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of urinalysis in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of stool testing in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of serum antibody and complement testing in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of genetic testing in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

When is ECG monitoring indicated in the workup of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Treatment

How is pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) treated?

What is the role of fluid therapy in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

How is acute renal failure treated in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of packed RBC (PRBC) transfusions in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of platelet transfusions in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

How is hypertension treated in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of nutritional support in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

How is pain managed in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of opioids in the pain management for pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of eculizumab in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

How is pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) treated?

What is the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

What is the role of plasma infusion in the treatment of pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

What is the role of eculizumab in the treatment of pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

What are the advantages of eculizumab over plasma exchange in the treatment of pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

How should eculizumab be administered in the treatment of pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

How is end-stage renal disease treated in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which diet modifications are used in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

Which medications in the drug class Monoclonal Antibodies, Endocrine are used in the treatment of Pediatric Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?

Follow-up

What is included in the long-term monitoring following treatment of Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring following treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

How is persistent hypertension treated in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

When is patient transfer required in the treatment of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

How is pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) prevented?

What are the possible renal complications of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the possible CNS complications of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the possible endocrine complications of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the possible GI complications of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What are the possible cardiac complications of pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?

What is the prognosis of Shiga toxin–producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS)?

What is the prognosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)?

What is included in the patient education about pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)?