Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 04, 2020
  • Author: Jerome C Lane, MD; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is pediatric nephrotic syndrome defined?

What are the signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome in children?

Which tests are performed in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which therapies are used in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of edema in the pathophysiology of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Why is the risk for thromboembolic complications (TEC) increased in patients with pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Why is the risk of infection increased in patients with pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What causes acute kidney failure (AKF) in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What causes pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prevalence of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prognosis of pediatric nephrotic syndrome responsive to steroids?

What is the prognosis of pediatric nephrotic syndrome resistant to steroids?

What are the possible complications of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is included in patient education about pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

DDX

What are the signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure (AKF) in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?

Workup

How is pediatric nephrotic syndrome diagnosed?

What is the role of urine studies in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which urine protein quantification findings are characteristic of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of blood tests in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of genetic testing in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of a Mantoux test in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of biopsy in the workup of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which glomerular morphology findings are characteristic of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the significance of a histologic finding of diffuse mesangial proliferation (DMP) in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the significance of a histologic finding of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

How are the types of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis differentiated in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prevalence of membranous nephropathy (MN) in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the histologic staging of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Treatment

What are the criteria for starting corticosteroids prior to kidney biopsy in children with nephrotic syndrome?

What are the criteria for kidney biopsy in children with nephrotic syndrome?

What are the KDIGO treatment guidelines for steroid-sensitive pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

How is hyperlipidemia treated in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

How are thromboembolic complications (TECs) treated in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

How is acute kidney failure treated in pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the initial steroid therapy for the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

How are infrequent relapses of pediatric nephrotic syndrome treated?

What is the role of diuretic therapy in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of antihypertensive therapy in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of home monitoring in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

How is frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) defined?

How is frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) treated?

What is the role of alkylating agents in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

What is the role of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

What is the role of cyclosporin A (CSA) in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

What is the role of tacrolimus (TAC) in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

What is the role of levamisole in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS)?

How are steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) treated?

Which treatments for pediatric nephrotic syndrome have been investigated?

What is the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of galactose in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of zinc in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of diuretics in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of albumin in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of alkylating agents in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of rituximab in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible adverse effects of antihypertension medications in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

When is inpatient care required to treat pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of vaccines in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibodies are used in the treatment of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressive agents are used in the treatment of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Plasma protein are used in the treatment of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics are used in the treatment of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome?