Oligomeganephronia Clinical Presentation

Updated: Sep 13, 2023
  • Author: Pascale H Lane, MD; Chief Editor: Craig B Langman, MD  more...
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In neonates, kidney disease is often suspected with spontaneous pneumothorax, feeding problems, or laboratory finding abnormalities.

Oligomeganephronia is usually found in infants in their first year of life and presents with anorexia, vomiting, and failure to thrive.

After the first year of life, individuals with oligomeganephronia most often present with short stature, polyuria and polydipsia, or proteinuria.

This condition may be incidentally diagnosed when renal abnormalities are discovered during the course of another illness.


Physical Examination

Physical examination findings are frequently normal in children with oligomeganephronia.

In neonates with oligomeganephronia, particular attention should be directed to diagnosis of associated syndromes, including branchiootorenal syndrome, acrorenal syndrome, and tapetoretinal dystrophia.

  • Branchiootorenal syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that includes preauricular sinus or dimples, abnormally formed ears, branchial fistula, and hearing loss.

  • Acrorenal syndromes may occur sporadically or in an autosomal recessive manner; these include ectrodactyly and urinary tract malformations.

  • Tapetoretinal dystrophia occurs more frequently with nephronophthisis but has been described with oligomeganephronia.