Pediatric Osteoporosis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: May 19, 2020
  • Author: Manasa Mantravadi, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP  more...
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DDx

Diagnostic Considerations

In children, low bone mineral density (BMD) can be the result of inadequate bone formation or excessive bone resorption.

The following conditions are associated with reduced bone formation:

  • Immobilization or prolonged bed rest

  • Medications, especially corticosteroids, diuretics, and cyclosporine
  • Burn injury [25, 26]

  • Hepatic osteodystrophy with chronic cholestasis

  • Aluminum toxicity in association with total parental nutrition (TPN) or renal osteodystrophy

  • Prolonged TPN use

Conditions associated with high bone resorption in children include the following:

Conditions associated with low BMD for age and gender without known etiology include the following:

See Osteoporosis for complete information on non-pediatric osteoporosis.