Carcinoid Tumor Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 13, 2019
  • Author: Cameron K Tebbi, MD; Chief Editor: Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are carcinoid tumors?

What is the range of clinical presentations for carcinoid tumors?

What are the signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors?

How are carcinoid tumors classified?

What causes carcinoid tumors?

How are carcinoid tumors diagnosed?

Which imaging modalities may be used to evaluate suspected carcinoid tumors?

What endoscopic procedures may be used for biopsy and diagnosis of carcinoid tumors?

What are the treatment of options for carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of carcinoid tumors?

What are carcinoid tumors?

How are carcinoid tumors classified?

How do the features of carcinoid tumors vary by location?

What is the pathophysiology of carcinoid tumors?

What are the histologic patterns of carcinoid tumors?

How are midgut carcinoid tumors characterized?

What is the role of fibrosis in the pathophysiology of carcinoid tumors?

Which physiological products are produced by carcinoid tumors?

Which biomarkers are used for the diagnosis of classic carcinoid tumor cells?

What is the role of somatostatin receptors in the pathophysiology of carcinoid tumors?

Why do carcinoid tumors have a high potential for metastasis?

What is the prevalence of carcinoid tumor in the US?

What is the global prevalence of carcinoid tumors?

What is the prognosis of carcinoid tumors?

Presentation

How are the signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors determined?

What is the anatomic distribution of carcinoid tumors?

What are the challenges to correctly diagnose carcinoid tumors?

What is the common clinical presentation of carcinoid tumors?

What are the less common symptoms of carcinoid tumors?

What causes carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of MEN 1 in the etiology of carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of carcinoid tumor?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor?

Which imaging modalities are used to detect carcinoid tumors?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT for detection of carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of CT and MRI in the workup of carcinoid tumor?

What is the role of angiography, PET scanning and scintigraphy in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of radionuclide imaging in the workup of carcinoid tumors?

Which procedures are used for biopsy of carcinoid tumors?

Treatment

How is carcinoid tumor metastasis treated?

Which chemotherapeutic agents are used for palliation of metastatic carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of octreotide in the treatment of carcinoid tumors?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of carcinoid tumor?

Guidelines

Which organizations have issued clinical treatment guidelines for carcinoid tumors?

How are carcinoid tumors graded?

How are carcinoid tumors staged?

What are the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (UKI NETS) recommendations for grading and staging of carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of GI carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of gastric carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of duodenal carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of bowel carcinoid tumors?

What are the ENETS recommendations for the treatment of colorectal and small bowel carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of appendix carcinoid tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of metastatic GI carcinoid tumors?

What are the treatment guidelines for thymic carcinoid tumors?

What are the treatment guidelines for bronchopulmonary NETs?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of localized neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of nonfunctioning pancreatic tumors?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of gastrinoma?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of insulinoma?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of glucagonoma?

What are the treatment guidelines for VIPomas?

What are the treatment guidelines for unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic tumors?

Which organizations have issued clinical treatment guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the TES recommendations for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL)?

What are the NANETS recommendations for biochemical testing in suspected pheochromocytoma?

Which imaging studies are recommended by TES/AACC/ESE for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the TES/AACC/ESE recommendations for preoperative management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the TES/AACC/ESE recommendations for postoperative management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the TES/AACC/ESE recommendations for genetic testing in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the NANETS recommendations for treatment of advanced pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma?

What are the AACE/AAES joint diagnostic guidelines for adrenal incidentaloma?

What are the AACE/AAES joint treatment guidelines for adrenal incidentaloma?

What are the NCCN recommendations for the treatment of adrenal incidentaloma?

What are the ESMO guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC)?

Follow-up

What is the most serious complication of carcinoid tumors?

What is the prognosis of carcinoid tumors?